Primary Examination SAQs

Study notes for the ANZCA Primary Examination SAQs

Renal Physiology

with 7 comments

2011a(11)03a(16) Describe the functions of the Loop of Henle, including the physiological mechanisms involved

2010a(11) Describe the changes that occur in the urine and the plasma with renal dysfunction

2009a(11)01a(1) Outline the determinants and regulation of extracellular fluid volume

2009b(13)06a(14)02a(6)95b(2) Explain the physiological processes that cause oliguria in response to hypovolaemic shock

2008b(16)07b(12)Outline the mechanisms by which the kidney maintains potassium homeostasis

2008a(15) Describe how the kidney establishes the medullary concentrating gradient

2006b(11)00a(7)List the hormones that regulate tubular reabsorption and describe their action and site of action

2005b(10)Describe the forces acting across the glomerular capillary membrane. Explain how afferent and efferent arterioloar tone affect GFR

2005a(11)01a(7)Describe how the body detects and responds to a water deficit

2004b(12)02b(13)Briefly describe the secretion and functions of renin and angiotensin

2004a(16)01b(6)99a(4)Explain how the kidney handles glucose. Describe the consequences of glycosuria

2004a(13)98b(1)Describe the concept of renal clearance and its use to estimate GFR

2003b(14)99b(4)Outline the role of the kidney in the regulation of body water

2000b(8)98a(5)Describe the factors governing GFR

1998b(3)Describe the process of tubuloglomerular feedback

1996a(7)In the diagram below indicate how the solvent and solute move across the semi-permeable membrane. Briefly explain the principles

1995b(5)Outline the effects of 500 ml of IV 20 percent mannitol, and the potential problems associated with its use

Written by primarysaqs

December 31, 2009 at 11:57 am

7 Responses

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  1. Hi Amanada,
    Great site, I visit it almost everyday!
    Small possible correction with 2005A(11) – I think V1 receptors cause vaso-constriction and V2 cause aquaporin insertion, not the other way around as listed.
    Regards, Stuart


    February 2, 2011 at 7:46 pm

    • Thanks Stuart – glad to hear it is a useful site. Sorry for the delayed response – I am busy studying for the Part 2…but relevant corrections have been made! Good luck with the exam!
      – A.


      February 12, 2011 at 6:33 pm

  2. Hi Amanda,
    Thank you for maintaining this wonderful website.
    Possible correction with 2006A11 (reading from Ganong)
    Angiotensin 2 – renal effect – constricts efferent > afferent – this should increase GFR (chaper 38), but also angiotensin 2 causes mesangial cells to contract decreasing surface area for filtration (decreasing Kf) so decreasing GFR overall (chapter 24).



    June 19, 2011 at 6:02 pm

    • Thanks for the feedback Dennis – it certainly seems your understanding of renal physiology is sound! If you are able to convey that in the exam, it would definitely be high scoring! Otherwise, the overall effect (which we agree is n overall decrease in GFR) would probably suffice


      June 23, 2011 at 3:17 pm

  3. Hi Amanda. Great site; I am visiting it more and more as time passes. Just a comment about 2011a(11)/2003a(16) (Loop of Henle). You have written that the cortical nephrons (short loop) have a thin ascending limb and that the juxtamedullary nephrons (long loop) have a thick ascending limb. From what I have read so far, it seems the cortical nephrons have only a thick ascending limb, whereas the juxtamedullary nephrons have both a thin ascending and a thick ascending limb. Therefore the sodium and chloride reabsorption in the cortical nephrons is by active mechanism (thick limb) and the sodium and chloride reabsorption in the juxtamedullary nephrons is by passive (in the thin limb) and active (in the thick limb) processes. That is from page 88-89 Vander’s Renal Phys 7th ed. Regards 🙂


    November 30, 2011 at 8:24 pm

  4. Thx so much for u r effort 😚

    mohamed hamza

    February 15, 2019 at 10:49 pm

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